This is the fifth episode in EUROFER's Green Deal on Steel series: Carbon Direct Avoidance.
The current techniques for making steel from iron ore are at their thermodynamic limits and electricity-based steel processes cannot, presently, rely on having access to fully renewable energy sources.
This is where Carbon Direct Avoidance comes in. Carbon Direct Avoidance tries to avoid the generation of carbon oxides in the first place.
There are two main ways.
There is hydrogen-based metallurgy, which uses hydrogen to replace carbon in steel production processes. This hydrogen could be produced using renewable energy.
Then there is electricity-based metallurgy, which uses electricity with a greater focus on renewable energy.
Carbon Direct Avoidance projects include HYBRIT, H2Steel, tkH2Steel GrInHY, SALCOS Hydrogen Hamburg and SIDERWIN. Further projects focus on the scrap or direct reduction of iron routes, involving circular economy solutions, process integration and Carbon Direct Avoidance via hydrogen and electricity use.
These projects are already underway at various levels across Europe, and when deployed could revolutionise how steel is made.
EUROFER holds bi-annual seminars on the state of the EU steel market. This event will be held ahead of the release of EUROFER's quarterly economic and market outlook. This quarter's edition will be online only due to COVID restrictions.
The European Commission published, on 21 September 2020, its revision of the EU ETS State Aid guidelines for the compensation of indirect carbon costs for the period 2021-2030.
The EU's Joint Research Centre has just published a detailed report on production costs for iron and steel in the EU and third countries, exploring the various production factors that make up the competitiveness of these sectors.